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Morocco

HPV Country Profile

Statistics and Data Analytics
NEW CASES OF CERVICAL CANCER IN 2018 (TOTAL)

3388

cases in 2018

DEATHS FROM CERVICAL CANCER IN 2018 (TOTAL)

2465

deaths in 2018

Status of National HPV Vaccination Programme

The HPV vaccine is currently not included in Morocco’s national immunization program.

Description
HPV

General Information

Human Papillomavirus

Burden of HPV infection

In Morocco, about 3.3% of women in the general population are estimated to have HPV type 16 or 18 at a given time, which causes approximately 79.4% of invasive cervical cancers in the country.1 Among women with HIV, 74.50% also had HPV, and HPV type 18 was the second most prevalent type (10.71%). HIV positive women with high CD4 T-cell counts had the same rates of HPV as HIV positive women with lower counts.4 A 2017 study found that 13.9% of women had HPV (all types), and among women with cervical cancer, HPV type 16 was the most common.5 Another study in 2015 showed that high-risk HPV DNA was detected in 36% of samples, with higher prevalence in women ≥45 (43%) years. The overall prevalence of HPV infection and multiple infections in the study samples was 76% and 21%, respectively. The most frequent HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (31%).6

Burden of cervical cancer: Cervical cancer, caused by HPV, is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women in Morocco, causing at least 2465 deaths in 2018 among the population of 13.2 million Moroccan women aged 15 years and older who are at risk for the disease.1,2 Between 2012 and 2018, the number of deaths every year due to cervical cancer nearly doubled (1076 in 2012 to 2465 in 2018), and if decisive action is not taken at the national level, annual deaths due to the disease will double again by 2040, reaching 4570 deaths per year.3 In Morocco, at least 3388 women are newly diagnosed with cervical cancer each year.

17.2 per 100,000 women in Morocco contract cervical cancer annually and 12.6 per 100,000 Moroccan women die due to cervical cancer each year. Among countries in the MENA region (as defined by UNAIDS), Morocco has some of the highest death and incidence rates. In countries such as Iran, Iraq and Yemen, around 2 per 100,000 women contract cervical cancer annually and about 1 per 100,000 women die due to the cancer per year.2 In comparison, in 2016, Morocco had between 1000 and 1500 new HIV infections and between 500 and 1000 AIDS-related deaths. In 2017, the HIV incidence rate was between 2 and 4 new cases of HIV per 100,000 people.2


Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate projections
Research and Publications
  1. Hammou, Rahma Ait, et al. “Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Involvement in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma among Women in Morocco.” Bioinformation, vol. 15, no. 1, Feb. 2019, pp. 55–60, doi:10.6026/97320630015055.
  2. Bouzoubaa, S. M., et al. “HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND ORAL CANCER: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.” Journal of Medical and Surgical Research, vol. IV, no. 3, 2019, pp. 583–93, https://journal-jmsr.net/uploads/113/6004_pdf.pdf.
  3. Belglaiaa, Essaada, et al. “Awareness of Cervical Cancer among Women Attending an HIV Treatment Centre: A Cross-Sectional Study from Morocco.” BMJ Open, vol. 8, no. 8, Aug. 2018, p. e020343, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020343.
  4. Ouladlahsen, Ahd, et al. “The Human Papillomavirus among Women Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Morocco A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study.” The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, vol. 12, no. 06, June 2018, pp. 477–84, doi:10.3855/jidc.9711.
  5. Messoudi, W., et al. “Cost-Effectiveness of HPV Vaccine Introduction in Morocco.” Revue d’Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, vol. 66, May 2018, p. S160, doi:10.1016/j.respe.2018.03.109.
  6. Selmouni, Farida, et al. “Tackling Cancer Burden in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: Morocco as an Exemplar.” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 19, no. 2, Feb. 2018, pp. e93–101, doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30727-1.
  7. Berraho, M., et al. “HPV and Cofactors for Invasive Cervical Cancer in Morocco: A Multicentre Case-Control Study.” BMC Cancer, vol. 17, no. 1, June 2017, pp. 435–435, doi:10.1186/s12885-017-3425-z.
  8. Birrou, Kamal, et al. “Human Papillomavirus Genotype Prevalence and Distribution among Moroccan Women.” International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 95–99, https://www.msjonline.org/index.php/ijrms/article/view/1213.
  9. Elmajjaoui, Sanaa, et al. “Epidemiology and Outcome of Cervical Cancer in National Institute of Morocco.” BMC Women’s Health, vol. 16, no. 1, Sept. 2016, p. 62, doi:10.1186/s12905-016-0342-2.
  10. Zouheir, Yassine, et al. “Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus and Acceptability to Vaccinate in Adolescents and Young Adults of the Moroccan Population.” Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, vol. 29, no. 3, June 2016, pp. 292–98, doi:10.1016/j.jpag.2015.11.002.
  11. Souho, Tiatou, et al. “Distribution of Carcinogenic Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Association to Cervical Lesions among Women in Fez (Morocco).” PLOS ONE, vol. 11, no. 1, Jan. 2016, p. e0146246, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146246.
  12. Belglaiaa, Essaada, et al. “Human Papillomavirus Genotypes among Women with or without HIV Infection: An Epidemiological Study of Moroccan Women from the Souss Area.” Infectious Agents and Cancer, vol. 10, Dec. 2015, doi:10.1186/s13027-015-0040-y.
  13. Selmouni, F., et al. “Acceptability of the Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine among Moroccan Parents: A Population-Based Crosssectional Study.” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal = La Revue De Sante De La Mediterranee Orientale = Al-Majallah Al-Sihhiyah Li-Sharq Al-Mutawassit, vol. 21, no. 8, Sept. 2015, pp. 555–63.
  14. Mouallif, Mustapha, et al. “Cervical Cancer and HPV: Awareness and Vaccine Acceptability among Parents in Morocco.” Vaccine, vol. 32, no. 3, Jan. 2014, pp. 409–16, doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.10.069.
  15. Mouallif, M., et al. “Primary Cervical Cancer Prevention in Morocco: HPV Vaccine Awareness and Acceptability among Parents.” Procedia in Vaccinology, vol. 8, Jan. 2014, pp. 68–76, doi:10.1016/j.provac.2014.07.012.
View all publications
News
References
  1. Bruni L, Barrionuevo-Rosas L, Albero G, Serrano B, Mena M, Gómez D, Muñoz J, Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S. ICO/IARC Information Centre on HPV and Cancer (HPV Information Centre). Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases in Morocco. Summary Report 27 July 2017. [19 October, 2018]

  2. Cancer Today. (2018, September). Retrieved October 19, 2018, from https://gco.iarc.fr/.

  3. Cancer Tomorrow. (2018, September). Retrieved October 19, 2018, from https://gco.iarc.fr/.

  4. Ouladlahsen A, Fayssel N, Bensghir R, Baba H, Lamdini H, Sodqi M, Marih L, Essebbani M, Nadifi S, Benjelloun S, Himmich H, Chakib A, Wakrim L, El Filali K M, Ezzikouri S. (2018). The Human papillomavirus among women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Morocco A prospective cross-sectional study. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 12(6). doi:10.3855/jidc.9711

  5. Berraho, M., Amarti-Riffi, A., El-Mzibri, M., Bezad, R., Benjaafar, N., Benideer, A., Matar, N., Qmichou, Z., Abda, N., Attaleb, M., Znati, K., El Fatemi, H., Bendahhou, K., Obtel, M., Filali Adib, A., Mathoulin-Pelissier, S., … Nejjari, C. (2017). HPV and cofactors for invasive cervical cancer in Morocco: a multicentre case-control study. BMC cancer, 17(1), 435. doi:10.1186/s12885-017-3425-z

  6. Birrou, K., Tagajdid, M., annaz, H., Elkochri, S., Abi, R., Zouhdi, M., & Mrani, S. (2017). Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence and distribution among Moroccan women. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 3(1), 95-99. Retrieved from http://www.msjonline.org/index.php/ijrms/article/view/1213

  7. Morocco. UNAIDS, 2018, Morocco, www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/morocco. Accessed 26 Oct. 2018.

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