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Kuwait

HPV Country Profile

Statistics and Data Analytics
NEW CASES OF CERVICAL CANCER IN 2018 (TOTAL)

59

cases in 2018

DEATHS FROM CERVICAL CANCER IN 2018 (TOTAL)

59

deaths in 2018

Status of National HPV Vaccination Programme

The HPV vaccine is currently not included in Kuwait’s national immunization program.

Description
HPV

General Information

Human Papillomavirus

Burden of HPV infection:

In Kuwait, about 0.2% of women in the general population are estimated to have HPV type 16 or 18 at a given time, which causes approximately 72.4% of invasive cervical cancers in the country.1 A 2011 study showed that 2.4% of women have any type of HPV, and another study from 2018 concluded that HPV strains 16, 18 and 45 were the most prevalent.4,5

Burden of cervical cancer

Cervical cancer, caused by HPV, is the eleventh leading cause of cancer deaths in women in Kuwait, causing at least 31 deaths annually among the population of 1.3 million women aged 15 years and older who are at risk for the disease.1,2 Between 2012 and 2018, the number of deaths every year due to cervical cancer nearly tripled (12 in 2012 to 31 in 2018), and if decisive action is not taken at the national level, annual deaths due to the disease will nearly triple again by 2040, reaching 82 deaths per year.3 In Kuwait, at least 59 women are newly diagnosed with cervical cancer each year.

3.3 per 100,000 women in Kuwait contract cervical cancer annually and 2.2 per 100,000 Kuwaiti women die due to the disease each year. Among countries in the MENA region (as defined by UNAIDS), Kuwait’s death and incidence rates due to cervical cancer are relatively low. For example, Somalia and Morocco have the highest incidence and mortality rates, with 24.0 and 17.2 women per 100,000 being newly diagnosed with cervical cancer annually and at least 21.9 and 12.6 women per 100,000 dying due to cervical cancer per year, respectively. Whereas Iran, Iraq and Yemen have the lowest (around 2 per 100,000 women are diagnosed per year and about 1 per 100,000 die because of cervical cancer annually).2


Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate projections
Research and Publications
  1. Al-Awadhi, Rana, et al. “Prevalence of Infectious Organisms Observed in Cervical Smears Between 1997-2014 at Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait.” Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, vol. 18, no. 3, Aug. 2018, pp. e324–28, doi:10.18295/squmj.2018.18.03.010.
  2. Mallik, Mrinmay K., et al. “Human Papillomaviruses Other than 16, 18 and 45 Are the Major High Risk HPV Genotypes amongst Women with Abnormal Cervical Smear Cytology Residing in Kuwait: Implications for Future Vaccination Strategies.” Diagnostic Cytopathology, vol. 46, no. 12, 2018, pp. 1036–39, doi:10.1002/dc.24035.
  3. Kapila, Kusum, et al. “Trends in Epithelial Cell Abnormalities Observed on Cervical Smears over a 21-Year Period in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kuwait.” Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, vol. 15, no. 1, Feb. 2015, pp. e112–15, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4318590/.
  4. Philipose, Thoppil Reba, et al. “THE SPECTRUM OF CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN KUWAIT USING THE REVISED 2001 BETHESDA SYSTEM.” THE SPECTRUM OF CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN KUWAIT USING THE REVISED 2001 BETHESDA SYSTEM, no. 5133, Aug. 2014, https://www.jemds.com/latest-articles.php?at_id=5133.
  5. Francis, Issam M., et al. “Prevalence and Correlation of Human Papilloma Virus and Its Types with Prognostic Markers in Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast in Kuwait.” Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, vol. 13, no. 4, Nov. 2013, pp. 527–33, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836641/.
  6. Al-Awadhi, Rana, et al. “Phylogenetic Analysis of Partial L1 Gene of 10 Human Papillomavirus Types Isolated Most Commonly from Women with Normal and Abnormal Cervical Cytology in Kuwait.” Archives of Virology, vol. 158, no. 8, Aug. 2013, pp. 1687–99, doi:10.1007/s00705-013-1658-y.
  7. Aboul-Fotouh, Mahmoud El-Morsi, and Ihab Talaat Hana. “Clinical Validation of High Risk HPV DNA Testing versus ThinPrep Cytology for Primary Cervical Cancer Screening.” Middle East Fertility Society Journal, vol. 18, no. 2, June 2013, pp. 102–09, doi:10.1016/j.mefs.2012.12.001.
  8. Anoud, Aljuwaihel, et al. “Awareness of HPV and Cervical Cancer Vaccine among PHC Physicians in Kuwait.” Greener Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 4, May 2013, pp. 152–59, doi:10.15580/GJMS.2013.4.031813528.
  9. Al-Awadhi, Rana, et al. “Viral Load of Human Papillomavirus in Women with Normal and Abnormal Cervical Cytology in Kuwait.” The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, vol. 7, no. 02, Feb. 2013, pp. 130–36, doi:10.3855/jidc.2748.
  10. Al‐Awadhi, Rana, et al. “Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Abnormal Cervical Cytology in Kuwait.” Diagnostic Cytopathology, vol. 41, no. 2, 2013, pp. 107–14, doi:10.1002/dc.21778.
  11. Al-Awadhi, Rana, et al. “Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Normal Cervical Cytology in Kuwait.” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 83, no. 3, Mar. 2011, pp. 453–60, doi:10.1002/jmv.21981.
  12. El-Hammasi, Khadija, et al. “Use of and Attitudes and Knowledge about Pap Smears among Women in Kuwait.” Journal of Women’s Health (2002), vol. 18, no. 11, Nov. 2009, pp. 1825–32, doi:10.1089/jwh.2008.1227.
  13. Sairafi, Mona Al, and Farida A. Mohamed. “Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Related to Cervical Cancer Screening among Kuwaiti Women.” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 18, no. 1, 2009, pp. 35–42, doi:10.1159/000163044.
  14. Kapila, Kusum, et al. “Changing Spectrum of Squamous Cell Abnormalities Observed on Papanicolaou Smears in Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait, over a 13-Year Period.” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 15, no. 4, 2006, pp. 253–59, doi:10.1159/000092986.
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News
References
  1. Bruni L, Barrionuevo-Rosas L, Albero G, Serrano B, Mena M, Gómez D, Muñoz J, Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S. ICO/IARC Information Centre on HPV and Cancer (HPV Information Centre). Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases in Kuwait. Summary Report 27 July 2017. [19 October, 2018]

  2. Cancer Today. (2018, September). Retrieved October 19, 2018, from https://gco.iarc.fr/.

  3. Cancer Tomorrow. (2018, September). Retrieved October 19, 2018, from https://gco.iarc.fr/.

  4. Al-Awadhi, R., Chehadeh, W., & Kapila, K. (2011). Prevalence of human papillomavirus among women with normal cervical cytology in Kuwait. Journal of Medical Virology, 83(3), 453-460. doi:10.1002/jmv.21981

  5. Mallik, M. K., Alramadhan, B., Dashti, H., Al-Shaheen, A., Juwaiser, A. A., Das, D. K., . . . Kapila, K. (2018). Human papillomaviruses other than 16, 18 and 45 are the major high risk HPV genotypes amongst women with abnormal cervical smear cytology residing in Kuwait: Implications for future vaccination strategies. Diagnostic Cytopathology. doi:10.1002/dc.24035

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